History of Jute

Jute is a natural fibre with a golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fibre. It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of the plant’s stem and the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability. It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics.


Jute fibre is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. It helps to make the best quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks.

Ancient period Jute
During the era of great Mughal emperor Akbar, poor villagers of India were used to wear jute clothes. Since ancient times, ropes and twines, used by Bengali Indians are made up of white jute for varied household applications. Also, Chinese paper makers have used all forms of plants like jute, hemp, cotton to make paper.


Time period from 17th century
From the 17th century to the middle of 20th century, the British empire authority was delegated by the British East India company which was the first jute trader. The raw jute was traded by this company. During the start of 20th century, Margaret Donnelly I was a jute mill landowner in Dundee who had set up first jute mill in India. The first consignment of Jute was exported by East India Company in the year 1793. In the country, Scotland, flax spinners were trying to learn whether jute can be mechanically processed. In the beginning of year 1830, Dundee spinners have determined spinning of Jute yarn by transfiguring their power driven flax machinery. This leads to increase in the export and production of raw jute from Indian sub-continent which was the single supplier of jute.


Time period from year 1855
The major jute growing areas were mainly in Bengal at the Kolkata side. When Mr. George Acland was buying jute spinning machinery from Dundee to India, the first power driven weaving factory was establishing at Rishra, on the River Hooghly near Calcutta in year 1855. By the year 1869, five mills were established with around 950 looms. The growth was so fast that, by the year 1910, 38 companies were operating around 30,685 looms, rendering more than a billion yards of cloth and over 450 million bags. Till the middle of year 1880, jute industry has acquired almost whole Dundee and Calcutta. Later in 19th century, manufacturing of jute has started in other countries also like in France, America, Italy, Austria, Russia, Belgium and Germany.


Time period from 19th century till 1947
Outstanding expansion in jute industry has been noticed in the 19th century. Through out the year 1939, around 68,377 looms were established on the River Hooghly near Calcutta. The prime commodities woven by jute are coarse bagging materials, produced by finer fabrics also known as hessian or burlap. The hand looms established in Calcutta, give this place world class leadership in burlap and other bagging materials.

Uses/Applications of Jute in Textile & Practical Life:


  • Jute is a fiber which has almost 1000 different kind of uses. Jute has been taken as the most important fiber like as cotton as it can be used for various purposes and easy to cultivate too.


  • Jute sacks are widely used in the practical life and coarse fabric made by Jute has no substitute ever. The wrapping bales of raw cotton also made by Jute.


  • As Jute is completely a biodegradable Fiber; it is suitable for many uses if it is replaced in so-called synthetic fiber. Synthetic fiber is very unstable and sometimes impacts badly on the natural environment where Jute is quite good alternatives to using.


  • Jute fiber can be blended with other natural and cellulosic fiber like Cotton and make a quite stable and different blended yarn which is stronger and shinier.


  • Jute is not only used to make yarn or cloth but also it is used to make Jute Pulp and paper. As the people of the world are being so much conscious now and trying to stop cutting wood or plants to save nature; Jute is drastically being used as the alternative of Wood in the Paper Manufacturing Industry.


  •  Jute has a bright history of use in making sackings, carpets for the households, and so on, cotton bale and wrapping fabrics for that and various fabric manufacturing industries in order to make mats, curtain, brush, and etc.


  • Now day Jute is not only being used in the Textile industry but also it is used in the Automobile Industry, Furniture and bedding industry, and Paper Making industry.


  • Jute is also being blended with other fibers to make non-woven, composites, and technical textiles. The nomenclature of Jute is “Wood Fiber” which is exclusively being used on the leading manufacturing industries with some promising features.


  • By using Jute we can produce various types of fabric named Hosiery Cloth, Hessian Cloth, Sacking, Scrim, Carpet Backing Cloth, canvas etc.
    Hessian is lighter than sacking and is used for bags, wrappers, wall covering, geotextiles, upholstery, and different home furnishing. By using the Heavy jute fibers the Sacking is to be made.


  • Jute has diversified uses now a days. Some of the exclusive and modern use of Jute is in Espadrilles, Floor coverings, Home textiles, high-performance technical textiles, geotextiles, composites, and more.


  • Due to the strong color and light fastness properties; it just is widely used in the decoration of the home. Jute is more durable than any other fiber because of its anti-static properties and low thermal conduction.


  • Most importantly; Jute is a bio-degradable fiber that comes from nature and decomposed on nature too. So it’s an environment-friendly fiber for the green people to access the green world.